Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

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Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Sun Dec 09, 2018 6:22 pm

Two 'lost' Morecambe & Wise programmes, discovered in Sierra Leone as 16mm black & white films, have now been restored to their original colour using BBC BASIC! Here you can see the various stages in the Colour Recovery process on a frame featuring Kenny Ball and his Jazzmen. Both programmes will be broadcast on BBC2 on December 26th and should be available thereafter on iPlayer. The BBC BASIC program is just over 3,400 lines long and processes the material at about 1.5 frames per second on a reasonably fast PC.

kennyball_source.jpg
Source image scanned from 16mm film.
kennyball_source.jpg (24.08 KiB) Viewed 3528 times
kennyball_contour.png
Contour diagram indicating geometric distortion.
kennyball_contour.png (17.56 KiB) Viewed 3528 times
kennyball_quadrant.png
Quadrant map showing the signs of U & V chroma.
kennyball_quadrant.png (43.44 KiB) Viewed 3528 times
kennyball_colour.jpg
Original colour recovered from black & white film.
kennyball_colour.jpg (25.88 KiB) Viewed 3528 times
Last edited by Richard Russell on Sun Dec 09, 2018 6:24 pm, edited 1 time in total.


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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by RobC » Sun Dec 09, 2018 6:57 pm

Great stuff - I'll be sure to tune in.

I recently read a fascinating BBC R&D blog about (I think) some other M&W episodes that "survived" on a really badly damaged roll of film. The film was too badly damaged to play but they were able to recreate frames without unwinding the film by using x-ray imaging!

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Commie_User » Sun Dec 09, 2018 7:44 pm

Bloody hell.

I wonder how fast that would take on a real BBC!

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Sun Dec 09, 2018 10:03 pm

Commie_User wrote:
Sun Dec 09, 2018 7:44 pm
I wonder how fast that would take on a real BBC!
It wouldn't have enough memory, so it's a moot point. The first line in the program (after some comments and constant declarations) is:

Code: Select all

      HIMEM = PAGE + 49*1024*1024
(I don't know why I didn't round it up to 50 Mbytes).

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by CMcDougall » Sun Dec 09, 2018 10:49 pm

sure recently folk also done some famous people's B&W pic's too. Sure brings them back to real life!

now to fix Romper Stomper with Russell Crowe, as it was recorded on to 2nd hand film #-o

also film Bad Taste which was also a low budget aussie film :lol:
ImageImageImage

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by davidb » Mon Dec 10, 2018 10:34 am

Well done! =D>

Can you say anything about the program(s) used to perform the restoration? Number of lines of code, structure (libraries, modules), any particular programming paradigms used?

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by lurkio » Mon Dec 10, 2018 12:06 pm

With Richard’s permission I’m posting some further info from him about the restoration process:
Richard Russell wrote:
Sun Dec 09, 2018 9:40 pm
lurkio wrote:
Sun Dec 09, 2018 7:52 pm
Did you personally do the restoration, Richard?
Restoration is always a joint effort because it involves a mixture of skills.

To start with, once the film has been digitised, there are a couple of 'automated' steps that require no human skill: 'undistortion' followed by 'raw colour recovery' (both using programs written in BBC BASIC) which I ran on my fastest PC here - time consuming but not needing my constant supervision.

The next stage is 'quadrant editing', which involves correcting the worst 'mistakes' made by the automated Colour Recovery process; that I also did here but it is a manual exercise, using dedicated editing software I wrote myself (also in BBC BASIC of course). It took me about a week to edit the two M&W episodes.

The material then goes to a video restoration specialist (in this case SVS Resources) who again carry out some automated processes (such as scratch removal, image stabilisation and VidFIRE) but also some highly labour intensive things like more detailed correction of remaining colour errors, painting over splices etc. That took them something like a month of full-time work.

Lastly we must not forget the audio, which often (as in this case) requires a lot of work to bring it up to a quality which doesn't distract from the recovered pictures. That was done by audio restoration specialist Mark Ayres.

So all together the restoration was principally the work of three people: myself, Peter Crocker at SVS and Mark.
:idea:

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Mon Dec 10, 2018 12:46 pm

davidb wrote:
Mon Dec 10, 2018 10:34 am
Can you say anything about the program(s) used to perform the restoration? Number of lines of code, structure (libraries, modules), any particular programming paradigms used?
Crikey, they are programs written ten years ago that I've barely looked at since! I mentioned the number of lines in the original post, and although I could hunt out the source code I'm not sure I know what a "programming paradigm" is, especially in the context of BBC BASIC. :?

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Mon Dec 10, 2018 12:50 pm

CMcDougall wrote:
Sun Dec 09, 2018 10:49 pm
sure recently folk also done some famous people's B&W pic's too. Sure brings them back to real life!
This is NOT colourisation!!! This is the recovery of the original colour, as was present on the videotape before it was erased.

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by guesser » Mon Dec 10, 2018 4:56 pm

RobC wrote:
Sun Dec 09, 2018 6:57 pm
I recently read a fascinating BBC R&D blog about (I think) some other M&W episodes that "survived" on a really badly damaged roll of film. The film was too badly damaged to play but they were able to recreate frames without unwinding the film by using x-ray imaging!
Indeed, that was a different episode.
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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by paulv » Tue Dec 11, 2018 12:33 am

This is just so clever. =D> =D>

The difference in colour recovery and colourisation is quite clear when you see the product of both techniques within a short space of time.

I recently got round to watching the new WW1 film "They shall not grow old" which is impressive but ultimately, distracting because the eye is drawn to the errors in colour choice and the loss of detail in the images due to the photoshop smoothing that is inherent in the process. Faces appear way too smooth for example so much of the nuance of human expression is lost.

Colour recovery by it's very nature retains all of the detail of the original image whilst restoring the original colour so the eye isn't distracted by the process because the result is simply "back to the original" which gives a much more pleasing result.

Well done!

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Coeus » Tue Dec 11, 2018 1:26 am

paulv wrote:
Tue Dec 11, 2018 12:33 am
I recently got round to watching the new WW1 film "They shall not grow old" which is impressive but ultimately, distracting because the eye is drawn to the errors in colour choice and the loss of detail in the images due to the photoshop smoothing that is inherent in the process. Faces appear way too smooth for example so much of the nuance of human expression is lost.
What do you know of the process or colourisation? I have just been back to watch the but where the video transitions from a small b&w image to a larger b&w image and then to a colour image and the bigger image does look slightly softer but that effect is a parent even before the colour appears. I could not say for sure if the issue is that there isn't the detail in the original footage to support viewing on a large 1920x1080 display, whether noise reduction has removed the detail or whether it is something else in the process. Some of the b&w footage at the start seems to have plenty of noise and not a lot of detail.

But yes, well done Richard for the colour recovery process.

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by davidb » Tue Dec 11, 2018 12:05 pm

Richard Russell wrote:
Mon Dec 10, 2018 12:46 pm
Crikey, they are programs written ten years ago that I've barely looked at since! I mentioned the number of lines in the original post, and although I could hunt out the source code I'm not sure I know what a "programming paradigm" is, especially in the context of BBC BASIC. :?
Ah, I didn't realise they were from so long ago. I'm not sure that I could comment on code I wrote ten years ago, though sometimes 2008 seems like yesterday. :?

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Tue Dec 11, 2018 12:43 pm

paulv wrote:
Tue Dec 11, 2018 12:33 am
I recently got round to watching the new WW1 film "They shall not grow old"
Much was made of Peter Jackson's supposedly superior colourisation, but I thought it was pretty awful personally.

Closer to home is the DVD release of Doctor Who: 'The Mind of Evil'. The first episode was film-recorded with a chroma notch in circuit so Colour Recovery was not possible, hence that episode needed to be manually colourised (at heavy cost in time and money). The other five episodes were restored using my Colour Recovery process, and it was obviously important that there wasn't a glaring difference between the results from the two different methods. You can judge for yourselves, but I would say the colourisation of the first episode (by Stuart Humphryes and Peter Crocker) was significantly better than that in 'They Shall Not Grow Old'.

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Tue Dec 11, 2018 2:25 pm

davidb wrote:
Tue Dec 11, 2018 12:05 pm
I'm not sure that I could comment on code I wrote ten years ago, though sometimes 2008 seems like yesterday. :?
Quite. I can find out specific features, if you are particularly interested, but not make general comments as to 'style'. Here's a snippet of one of the more important processes:

Code: Select all

      REM Measure the horizontal component of the geometric distortion by cross-
      REM correlating a signal at [8.866 MHz, ±144 c/aph] (derived either by
      REM multiplying the 72+360 c/aph and 216 c/aph components, or by squaring
      REM the 72 c/aph component, according to the user's X-mode selection)
      REM against a signal derived from the U and V references the same way.

      REM Correlate U and V separately with their own U and V references (they
      REM have different vertical frequencies).  Since one cycle of 8.866 MHz
      REM corresponds to 4.06 HD pixels only a 'modulo-4' result is produced;
      REM this must be 'disambiguated' to give an absolute measurement.

      REM To improve the S/N ratio the correlation is performed over a 3x3
      REM 'macroblock' centered on the block of interest.  Note that the
      REM previously-measured vertical displacement is used to offset the
      REM subcarrier reference before correlation.

      DEF PROCxprocess
      LOCAL A%, B%, C%, D%, H%, M%, N%, O%, P%, R%, W%, X%, Y%, Z%, c%()
      DIM c%(3,Xblocks%-1,Yblocks%-1)

      C% = XblockSize%
      D% = YblockSize%
      W% = SourceWidth%
      FOR Y% = 0 TO Yblocks%-1
        FOR X% = 0 TO Xblocks%-1
          IF Fy%(X%,Y%) THEN
            P% = Y%*D%*W% + X%*C%
            O% = W% * INT(Dy%(X%,Y%) * 15/16 + 0.5) : REM Check WREF phase
            A% = U144% + P% : REM ebubars3
            Z% = Urxx% + P% - O%
            FOR H% = 0 TO 3
              B% = Z% - H%
              c%(H%,X%,Y%) = USR(correlate)
            NEXT
            A% = V144% + P% : REM ebubars3
            Z% = Vrxx% + P% - O%
            FOR H% = 0 TO 3
              B% = Z% - H%
              c%(H%,X%,Y%) += USR(correlate)
            NEXT
          ENDIF
        NEXT
      NEXT Y%

      Cx%() = 0
      Dx%() = 128

      FOR Y% = 1 TO Yblocks%-2 : REM ignore edge blocks (filtering etc.)
        FOR X% = 1 TO Xblocks%-2 : REM ignore edge blocks (filtering etc.)
          IF Fy%(X%,Y%) THEN
            M% = &80000000 : REM maximum
            FOR H% = 0 TO 3
              B% = ^c%(H%,X%,Y%)
              C% = USR(sum9)
              IF C% > M% M% = C% : R% = H%
            NEXT
            B% = ^c%((R%+2)MOD4,X%,Y%)
            N% = USR(sum9)
            Dx%(X%,Y%) = R%
            Cx%(X%,Y%) = (M%-N%) >> ChromaScale%
          ENDIF
        NEXT
      NEXT Y%

      PROCdisambiguate(Dx%(), Cx%(), Fx%(), Xthresh%)

      ENDPROC

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Wed Dec 26, 2018 12:48 pm

Today!
IMG_20181226_0001.jpg

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by davidb » Wed Dec 26, 2018 10:19 pm

I saw the start of the programme. If they hadn't said that it had been restored then I don't think I would ever have known! :D

Actually knowing that it had been restored just made me want to peer closer at the screen, so maybe the BBC should have just aired the programme and added a bit at the end to say, "Oh, by the way, the colour was restored and here's how it was done." ;)

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Coeus » Wed Dec 26, 2018 11:29 pm

I enjoyed the two Morcambe and Wise programs. A non-technical question: does anyone know who the two singers were - the woman in the first one and the man in the second?

Technically, the only thing that jumped out as a bit weird was the character in red in the scene where Morcamble is being conned out of his winnings. There were some colour gradients on backgrounds that seemed a little odd if you looked at them, which you generally didn't, but as these were originally broadcast before I was born I can't say they weren't actually that colour originally.

Afterwards, there was a program looking at the career of Ken Dodd. There was some material that had presumably been recovered from film as there were vertical lines in the picture of the kind you'd expect from a film that been scratched running though a projector. That was also in colour and I immediately wondered if this colour recovery process has been used on other material too, or whether that may have been a colour film in the first place.

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by jgharston » Thu Dec 27, 2018 8:25 am

The first one was a good example for colour recovery as it was full of late-sixties clothing - Eric's yellow so'wester, green shirt combo, Ernie's blue suit.
Coeus wrote:
Wed Dec 26, 2018 11:29 pm
Technically, the only thing that jumped out as a bit weird was the character in red in the scene where Morcamble is being conned out of his winnings.
They were Dick & Sid, the writers! They occasionally put themselves into a sketch when a third party was needed to bounce off.
Last edited by jgharston on Thu Dec 27, 2018 8:28 am, edited 1 time in total.

Code: Select all

$ bbcbasic
PDP11 BBC BASIC IV Version 0.32
(C) Copyright J.G.Harston 1989,2005-2020
>_

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Thu Dec 27, 2018 9:55 am

Coeus wrote:
Wed Dec 26, 2018 11:29 pm
A non-technical question: does anyone know who the two singers were - the woman in the first one and the man in the second?
Chris Langford and Ronnie Carroll (sadly both now deceased) - Ronnie appeared throughout the show in the sketches as well of course.
Technically, the only thing that jumped out as a bit weird was the character in red in the scene where Morcamble is being conned out of his winnings.
What was "weird" about it? The jumper was certainly a highly saturated colour, but would presumably have been just as prominent in the original quad videotape. Remember that this was in the very early days of colour TV (in the UK), indeed when those programmes were originally broadcast BBC1 hadn't yet started regular colour transmissions: that came a year later in 1969. So colour was very much a novelty, for the broadcasters as well as the viewers, and the use of saturated colours perhaps less surprising as a result.
I immediately wondered if this colour recovery process has been used on other material too, or whether that may have been a colour film in the first place.
It hasn't been used on any Ken Dodd material. Apart from a few snippets, only the well known Dad's Army, Are You Being Served? and Doctor Who episodes (and another Morecambe & Wise) have previously been restored to colour that way. Don't forget that a lot of original colour videotape does survive from that era (the colour-recovered Dad's Army episode was the only one of those recorded in colour to have been wiped) so the Ken Dodd material may well have been that.
Last edited by Richard Russell on Thu Dec 27, 2018 10:06 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Thu Dec 27, 2018 10:04 am

jgharston wrote:
Thu Dec 27, 2018 8:25 am
They were Dick & Sid, the writers! They occasionally put themselves into a sketch when a third party was needed to bounce off.
Occasionally? Almost always, judging by the three episodes in which I have been involved with doing colour recovery! Eddie Braben took over as writer for the subsequent series of course. Sid and Dick basically walked away when they were convinced Eric wouldn't work again after his heart attack, but it was a blessing in disguise because Eddie was a better writer for the pair.

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Coeus » Thu Dec 27, 2018 3:14 pm

Richard Russell wrote:
Thu Dec 27, 2018 9:55 am
What was "weird" about it?...
Yes, a very saturated red/pink colour is what drew my eye in the first place but then I noticed a halo, Looking at the frame below it looks like the colour had bled from the man's back onto the background.
red.jpg
Richard Russell wrote:
Thu Dec 27, 2018 9:55 am
It hasn't been used on any Ken Dodd material. Apart from a few snippets...
I think I'd call this a snippet. It was only a few seconds long but did seem to have scratches that were characteristic of film so I doubt it was transferred direct from VT.

You mentioned that colour TV was new in the UK at the time. Were we leading the world in that respect? I am thinking that it seems odd that BBC Enterprises should have been trying to sell b/w copies of a programme taped in colour unless there was no other market for colour TV except in the UK.
Last edited by Coeus on Thu Dec 27, 2018 3:15 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Thu Dec 27, 2018 3:57 pm

Coeus wrote:
Thu Dec 27, 2018 3:14 pm
Looking at the frame below it looks like the colour had bled from the man's back onto the background.
Do you know how analogue colour TV works? The PAL colour subcarrier is about 4.43 MHz and the upper frequency limit of the baseband composite signal about 5.25 MHz so the chrominance bandwidth is less than 1 MHz; as a result 'bleeding' of the colour is inevitable. Add to that the way the Colour Recovery process works, with the signs of U and V being determined only in a relatively coarse grid (120 x 90), and this effect shouldn't be surprising.
You mentioned that colour TV was new in the UK at the time. Were we leading the world in that respect?
No, the US were way ahead of us (probably by about a decade). That's why the early colour experiments here and in Europe often used modified NTSC equipment. It was originally expected that we would use NTSC ourselves, of course; thank goodness we didn't because Colour Recovery doesn't work with NTSC.
I am thinking that it seems odd that BBC Enterprises should have been trying to sell b/w copies of a programme
Not really. The markets to which they were trying to sell programmes (typically Commonwealth countries, such as those in Africa from which much of the recovered material has come) didn't introduce colour services until much later. In any case there wasn't a lot of choice: I don't know that colour Film Recorders existed at all at the time, and sending a videotape (even if that had been economic) wouldn't have been any use if the recipient country used a different TV standard. Then, as now, film is a much more 'universal' medium.

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Coeus » Thu Dec 27, 2018 5:23 pm

Richard Russell wrote:
Thu Dec 27, 2018 3:57 pm
Do you know how analogue colour TV works?...
I have never studied it formally, though I did have a college lecturer who taught TV engineering to students on other courses and we did frequently digress into TV as it was interesting. So, yes, I knew about the sub-carrier and almost certainly had seen the bandwidth figures before. I knew the colour bandwidth was less, though I am surprised by how much. It was suggested at the time, though, that the colour bandwidth didn't need to be so high and that the eye would not notice.

Of course, since then, "the eye" has got used to HDTV so it is hard to remember exactly what normal analogue TV was like.
Richard Russell wrote:
Thu Dec 27, 2018 3:57 pm
Add to that the way the Colour Recovery process works, with the signs of U and V being determined only in a relatively coarse grid (120 x 90), and this effect shouldn't be surprising.
Now that is interesting because, assuming this represents a further reduction in bandwidth from the 1Mhz colour bandwidth, the effect will be more obvious when the colour changes from one UV quadrant to another than when the colour change remains within the same quadrant.
Richard Russell wrote:
Thu Dec 27, 2018 3:57 pm
Not really. The markets to which they were trying to sell programmes (typically Commonwealth countries, such as those in Africa from which much of the recovered material has come) didn't introduce colour services until much later. In any case there wasn't a lot of choice: I don't know that colour Film Recorders existed at all at the time, and sending a videotape (even if that had been economic) wouldn't have been any use if the recipient country used a different TV standard. Then, as now, film is a much more 'universal' medium.
I think this still tells us something interestingly about the attitudes of the BBC bosses at the time, one that was completely immersed in the present and not concerned that people in the future would look back on those days as pioneering not just in technology but in what was broadcast. If there has been a desire to create colour film copies of video tapes surely a machine could have been built? It can't have been any more different from the equivalent b/w machine than a normal colour TV set is from a b/w one. But there was no market at the time. We have these archives now not because anyone at the time had an interest in archiving but in immediate sale.

I am not having a moan at you, of course, Richard, I think you've done us all a great service, as have those who have seen the light and funded this work, and it is nice to see these programmes back om TV.
Last edited by Coeus on Thu Dec 27, 2018 5:25 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Thu Dec 27, 2018 6:06 pm

Coeus wrote:
Thu Dec 27, 2018 5:23 pm
If there has been a desire to create colour film copies of video tapes surely a machine could have been built? It can't have been any more different from the equivalent b/w machine than a normal colour TV set is from a b/w one.
I'm not so sure. The resolution, convergence and stability requirements needed to do justice to a colour transfer might have been difficult to achieve with the display technology of the day, as might the image intensity needed to achieve an acceptable exposure on colour film stock. This was, after all, at a time when most picture monitoring (e.g. in the production gallery or the cameraman's viewfinder) would have been only in monochrome, with perhaps only one or two Grade 1 colour monitors available for the director to look at.
We have these archives now not because anyone at the time had an interest in archiving but in immediate sale.
Indeed television output was seen as ephemeral, the whole idea of 'archiving' and the prospect that there would be interest in watching the material again decades later was quite alien. There were a few farsighted people (for example David Croft and Jimmy Perry famously insisted on Dad's Army episodes being preserved, which is why only one of them needed to undergo colour recovery) but they were the exception. And even if more people had felt that way, who would have paid for it?
I am not having a moan at you, of course, Richard, I think you've done us all a great service, as have those who have seen the light and funded this work, and it is nice to see these programmes back om TV.
You can't apply the benefit of hindsight to attitudes of 50 years ago. We should just be grateful that so much has been preserved, and that technology (and a lot of luck) has allowed us to recover things that were to all intents and purposes destroyed. It could have been a lot worse.

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Coeus » Thu Dec 27, 2018 8:09 pm

Richard Russell wrote:
Thu Dec 27, 2018 6:06 pm
I'm not so sure. The resolution, convergence and stability requirements needed to do justice to a colour transfer might have been difficult to achieve with the display technology of the day, as might the image intensity needed to achieve an acceptable exposure on colour film stock. This was, after all, at a time when most picture monitoring (e.g. in the production gallery or the cameraman's viewfinder) would have been only in monochrome, with perhaps only one or two Grade 1 colour monitors available for the director to look at.
I remember a Sony video 8 camera that likewise had a monochrome CRT eyepiece. So having found a picture of kinescope machine it looks like the basic idea is to point a film camera at a small CRT. So, why small? Is it a case that the narrower the angle the beam has to be deflected through the sharper the picture at the corners? Or was it just to make the equipment compact? Was makings small, colour CRTs difficult because of the precision required in the colour mask and gun alignment? Did that lead the migration to bigger and bigger domestic TV sets? Yes, colour film would have been slower for the same grain size.

For all that it looks as if the non-appearance of the colour kinescope may have been due to lack of market rather than technical challenges. I note the b/w versions were used for time shifting TV broadcasts in the USA due to their differing time zones and video tape took over that function.
Last edited by Coeus on Thu Dec 27, 2018 8:12 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by 1024MAK » Thu Dec 27, 2018 8:26 pm

In the analogue day’s of U.K. TV, if a TV region was not to relay the transmitted broadcast signal from another studio (say London, but other locations may have also been used), any national programme that was going to be broadcast at a different time or on a different day had to be sent to the region on either film or video tape...

This physical sending of material continued for non-time critical outside broadcasts, and may still continue. Though obviously using video tapes and now more modern media.

Monochrome (black and white) television is always sharper, both due to the whole bandwidth being only used for the monochrome picture information (not having to share with the colour information and hence no bleed or misinterpretation) and due to there being no need for a shadow mask or a matrix of three different colour phosphors on the screen. Thus it is far easier and cheaper to produce a high quality monochrome CRT compared to a colour CRT. This also explains why professional computers continued to use monochrome CRT monitors long after colour TVs became common.

Mark
Last edited by 1024MAK on Thu Dec 27, 2018 8:29 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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Richard Russell
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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Thu Dec 27, 2018 10:17 pm

Coeus wrote:
Thu Dec 27, 2018 8:09 pm
So, why small?
All the reasons you list are valid. High brightness with excellent focus and linearity implies a small deflection angle (and hence a small screen). Colour CRTs with those properties probably didn't exist at all (even if manufacturing such a device was technically feasible, which it probably wasn't, the film recorder market wouldn't have been big enough to make developing a custom CRT viable).

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Re: Morecambe & Wise restored using BBC BASIC!

Post by Richard Russell » Thu Dec 27, 2018 10:32 pm

1024MAK wrote:
Thu Dec 27, 2018 8:26 pm
Monochrome (black and white) television is always sharper ... due to the whole bandwidth being only used for the monochrome picture information (not having to share with the colour information and hence no bleed or misinterpretation)
No so much 'is' but 'was'. Now we have the technology to combine the luminance and chrominance in the same bandwidth without the usual 'cross luminance' and 'cross colour' artefacts. With techniques such as 'Weston Clean PAL', 'Composite-Compatible Component' and 'Transform PAL Decoding' we can perfectly (or almost so, in the last case) separate the two, but the kind of spatio-temporal processing required is way beyond what was possible 50 years ago.

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